EDFish

New report outlines causes of ocean decline and proposal for recovery

A new report by an independent global organization lays out an eight-point plan to reverse ocean decline and advance recovery of the high seas.

The Global Ocean Commission (GOC), an independent organization of prominent leaders from around the globe formed to develop feasible solutions for key challenges facing the high seas, yesterday issued its final report, “From Decline to Recovery: A Rescue Package for the Global Ocean.” It outlines five drivers of ocean decline and an eight-part proposal to recover the high seas, an area of our oceans outside the jurisdiction of individual countries.

EDF applauds the commission for bringing high-level international attention to the important role oceans play in sustaining life on the planet, and we are pleased to see the optimism and solution-focus of the report.  The commission’s call to action must be heeded; recovery of the ocean is both possible and imperative to sustaining life on earth.

The GOC recognized that overfishing has been one of the primary drivers of ocean decline. Its recovery plan includes calls for reforming governance and management to address overfishing as well as eliminating harmful subsidies that often lead to too many fishermen chasing too few fish.

As the GOC points out, there is significant environmental and economic upside potential when fisheries are managed properly.  Both science and practical experience tell us that there are solutions that can be adopted to eliminate overfishing while empowering fishermen to be stewards of the resource they use. These solutions, such as secure access to a share of the global catch, coupled with science based limits on catch levels, can align economic and environmental incentives so that fishermen are motivated to fish more sustainably.

Subsidies that work against profitable and sustainable fisheries need to be ended, but the path to getting there isn’t always easy. Fishermen often depend on government support, and that support is often most needed when fish populations are collapsing. Governments can re-direct their funding to work with fishermen to develop solutions that will boost economic and ecological recovery rather than perpetuate collapse.

The EU’s new Common Fisheries Policy is a good example to follow. The policy and accompanying funding legislation, includes stronger sustainability requirements and redirects harmful subsidies to the improvement of fisheries management.  At last night’s event to celebrate the release of the GOC report, European Commissioner for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, Maria Damanaki, received a hearty round of applause for these reform efforts that she successfully led.

There is much work to do to ensure that the recommendations of the GOC report lead to real action by governments, businesses and NGOs around the world.  While the GOC has identified the high seas as the focus of their efforts, we hope that further cooperation by government, business and civil society can also address the management problems within countries’ own waters, where the majority of fish are caught.

By implementing the GOC’s advice and following suit to reform management in fishing nations’ waters, the world can in the near future enjoy thriving oceans that provide more fish in the water, more food on the plate and more prosperous communities.

 

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EDF Partner In Cuba Visits US for "Our Oceans" Conference (Part 2)

Fabian_Diving2

Dr. Fabián Pina Amargós is a first-rate marine scientist from Cuba, who has worked closely with EDF’s Oceans program for many years. Fabián has been a scientist with Cuba’s Center for Coastal Ecosystems Research for twenty years and was recently named director of the center.

Welcome back for Part 2 of our intern Shannon Switzer’s interview with Dr. Fabián Pina Amargós, as they discuss the marine scientist’s opinion on the effectiveness of MPA’s and ecotourism as conservation tools as well as his hopes for Cuba as a nation. Read the first part of the interview here.

SLS: Some people are skeptical that MPAs are effective in sustaining fisheries while protecting marine life. What have your studies shown you about the effectiveness of MPAs?

FPA: I think that of course, the controversial part is because nature is very variable. Sometimes you can have the results or the positive impacts of a management tool in a shorter time and sometimes it takes longer, which is dependent, for example, on the species you are trying to recover. So a species that has a short life cycle would have an impact of a no-take area faster, but if we are thinking tarpon, or goliath grouper or other species that live longer, you need to wait a longer time [to see the results].

But generally speaking, and especially where I am dealing in the Gardens, which is relevant for Cuba but also for other tropical places with similar ecosystems, we measured the results of the effect of the marine reserve. We found that after ten years of the declaration [of the MPA] the number of fish increased, the size of the fish are bigger and they are more abundant inside of the reserve. Also, they are not shy and are friendlier and allow you to get closer, so you can enjoy them more when you dive. But also, because the number has increased dramatically, we carried out an experiment and tested the spill-over effect, which is when the number of fish increases until it’s full inside, and they need to move outside. It’s not a random movement, it’s basically a density-dependent kind of movement, cause it’s crowded inside the protected area, and then they just spill over the boundaries.

Then the fishery grounds benefit from that, and you can fish outside. We’ve proved that [with our research], but now fishermen are saying most of the fish they are catching now are coming from the reserve. So now the reserves are gaining support by, not all of the fishermen, but many of them. At the beginning the vast majority of them were opposed to the reserve, and it’s a normal reaction of human behavior—you are preventing me from using a fishing ground that I’ve been using forever and my father and my grandfather and my grand grandfather were fishing on—but they realize now that this is a good tool.

SLS: Along the same lines, part of MPA management often involves tourism based on recreational and sport fishing. Do you think these activities should continue to be allowed in protected areas, despite some studies saying that mishandling can sometimes lead to as high as a forty percent mortality rate?

FPA: I think so. What’s happening typically is the mortality is a lot lower for recreational fishers, especially if you target tropical places with shallow water areas called flats, like we have in Cuba. These are good fora kind of fly fishing that targets bonefish, tarpon, permit and snook. Basically, you use a very small hook and you need to tease the fish that the thing close to his mouth is real bait—like a real shrimp or a crab or small fish—and then as soon as they bite, you need to hook them, because the fish are not stupid. They feel that it’s something sharp, there is no meat in that, and they just spit that out of their mouth. So you need to hook them almost immediately, and if you hook it in the mouth and handle it properly—keep the fish in the water in a horizontal position while unhooking and taking pictures with it—you can get as close as zero percent mortality.

For sure the mortality is less than if you use a net and catch two tons of bonefish. It’s very easy to catch two tons of bonefish, because the medium sized ones gather in schools of several hundred individuals, so you can get 5 or 6 tons of bonefish in two minutes [with a net]. Probably you will need like a year or more for hooking a few hundred bonefish.

So I’d say it’s viable also because people are willing to pay a lot. Americans, Europeans, people from Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, almost everywhere, South Africa, all those countries that visit the Gardens are good for catching and releasing bonefish. And they pay a lot of money, they pay air tickets, hotels everywhere on their way to the Gardens which benefit our economy and people, and also they tip the guides. The tips are very high, so that money is coming to the coastal communities and having a positive impact on families.

So yes, it is more profitable with less impact. We have tagged a bonefish and caught it again just two weeks later. So in two weeks they are happy to bite again, even with not only hooking them but also putting the tag in the back. So I think it’s viable, but of course it is dependent on the fishery.

All the time it is very important to inform people through the media that nature is very case by case, and there are not general recipes for everything. So even in tropical areas to temperate areas similar to one another, there’s differences that you must know about and take into account for managing the resources, and that’s why it’s important to do the research but also to inform people that every place is different and you need to know what is going on in every place to make the best decisions.

SLS: You mentioned that the money from tourism ends up in the hands of the locals and benefits the surrounding community. That is great to hear. Tell me more.

FPA: In Cuba we have been good at gathering the revenues of the country and splitting it quite evenly in the population. So even in the situation of Cuba with limited resources and the embargo and general world situation, we keep the health care, social security and education in very high level related to other countries with similar or even higher income. We have been very good with that.

So even the money that is generated by tourism is well-used in the country, so in general it benefits the entire country, but especially this kind of tourism that involves people from the coastal communities. The issue is that typically the people from the coastal communities, I think almost everywhere, but especially in developing countries, they are not highly educated people, so sometimes it’s hard for them to get the positions like in a hotel kind of environment. But these guys are good for marine things- diving and fly fishing- it’s impossible for any one of us to compete with these guys on marine related activities. Read More »

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EDF Partner In Cuba Visits US for "Our Oceans" Conference (Part 1)

Introduction from Dan Whittle:

Fabian_Diving2Dr. Fabián Pina Amargós is a first-rate marine scientist from Cuba, who has worked closely with EDF’s Oceans program for many years. Fabián has been a scientist with Cuba’s Center for Coastal Ecosystems Research for twenty years and was recently named director of the center.   

Three years ago, Dr. Pina became the first Cuban to receive the coveted Pew Marine Fellowship and has used that support to expand his study of the majestic goliath grouper. 

Over the past few years, EDF scientists have been with Dr. Pina and his team on a series of research expeditions in the Gulf of Ana Maria and the world-renowned Gardens of the Queen National Marine Park to assess the health of fish populations and of the coral reefs and other marine habitats they depend upon.

Because of Dr. Pina’s groundbreaking work, and his long history of collaborating with EDF and other marine conservation organizations in the U.S., Secretary of State John Kerry invited him to the history-making “Our Ocean” conference held earlier this week in D.C.

The two-day meeting of minds brought together a diverse group of attendees from around the world to discuss approaches for eliminating marine pollution and addressing ocean acidification, as well as strategies for building sustainable fisheries. Many commitments were made by heads of state to designate protected marine areas including our own President Obama, who called for the creation of the world’s largest ocean preserve, potentially expanding the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument to nine times its current size.

While in the U.S., Dr. Pina also visited us in EDF’s Raleigh, North Carolina office and spoke with our intern Shannon Switzer. They talked about growing up in Cuba, how he became interested in marine conservation and his biggest hopes for Cuba and its people. See their conversation Part 1 of their conversation below, and learn more about this prestigious Cuban scientist and his work.

  Read More »

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FAO adopts sustainable small-scale fisheries guidelines

Photo credit: Jason Houston

Photo credit: Jason Houston

Small-scale fisheries provide a host of social and economic benefits to local communities.  They contribute about half of the global catch; supplying food for local, national and global markets.  They are responsible for about ninety percent of fishing employment. They provide income, contribute to food security and nutrition, alleviate poverty, and often support a way of life strongly anchored in local culture and community.

But small-scale and artisanal fisheries face many challenges today including depleted fish stocks; pollution; encroachment from development; climate change, and sea level rise. Many small-scale fishing communities are marginalized, with low levels of access to political power, education and other resources.

To combat these challenges, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) collaborated with governments, Civil Society Organizations and other stakeholders to develop a set of ‘Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication’ (SSF).  Today at the biennial meeting of the FAO’s Committee on Fisheries in Rome, delegates adopted the SSF Guidelines by consensus.

The SSF Guidelines offer guidance on how to deliver on the promise of sustainable small-scale fisheries in a way that is ecosystem-friendly, participatory and sensitive to cultural context. The Guidelines give strong new impetus to the importance of inclusiveness in setting goals and designing management systems that can work for communities, with an emphasis on the key role that women play in sustainable fishing communities.

In brief, the Guidelines stress that:

  • Small-scale fishing communities need to have secure tenure rights, which equitably distribute benefits from responsibly managed fisheries.
  • These tenure rights are balanced by responsibilities for long term conservation and management of fishery resources, and small-scale actors must fish at levels and with practices that protect the resource over the long term.
  • States must include small-scale fishing communities in the design, planning and implementation of management systems to sustain fisheries and communities – and in particular must ensure that women are equitably included in all aspects of the process.
  • The post-harvest and trade sectors are just as critical to the security of SSF communities as fishing itself, and stakeholders from these sectors (particularly women, who are often more active in post-harvest than harvest roles) must be included in the design, planning and implementation of these parts of the value chain.
  • Special attention to social and economic development may be needed to ensure that often-marginalized SSF communities can have secure livelihoods and enjoy their human rights.
  • Governments need to put in place policies and plans to take into consideration the potential for significant risks to SSF communities from disasters and climate change.
  • All parties need to respect and make use of traditional knowledge, in addition to collecting and disseminating scientific research, in support of SSF; communicating the data in an efficient and transparent way is an essential component of sustainable management.
  • Small-scale fisheries also operate in near-shore environments of great ecological value, and thus high-quality fisheries management systems in those places also yield tangible environmental benefits.

The FAO developed the SSF Guidelines through a very broad and inclusive process of outreach and listening; the result was a document that truly reflects the concerns and aspirations of the people and communities who depend on these fisheries. EDF commends all involved for adoption of these important guidelines and looks forward to assisting in implementation.

Click here to view the full guidelines.

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World Oceans Day: All eyes on oceans in June 2014

 

Photo Credit: Carlos Aguilera

Photo Credit: Carlos Aguilera

World Oceans Day is an annual reminder that the oceans are our planet’s greatest natural resource and that we must take actions to protect them. The livelihoods of millions of people around the world depend on healthy oceans, yet they face threats including overfishing, acidification and marine pollution.

Fortunately, all eyes will be on the oceans this June through a series of international events designed to raise awareness, inspire positive policies and spark conversations between local governments, fishermen and conservationists about how to build a brighter future. Here are a few events to watch:

  • Food & Agriculture Committee on Fisheries (COFI): On June 9-13, the FAO Committee on Fisheries will meet in Rome, Italy to finalize their guidelines for securing sustainable small-scale fisheries in the context of food security and poverty eradication. View the agenda here.
  • Capitol Hill Oceans Week (CHOW): From June 10-12, the National Marine Sanctuary Foundation will host a week of conferences, workshops, and seminars to discuss the future of the world’s oceans. Guests and speakers come together to bridge the gaps between non-profits, academia, industry, and more to discuss the conservation of the world’s oceans and its resources. Click here to learn more.
  • State Department “Our Ocean Conference”: On June 16 & 17, Secretary of State John Kerry will convene an international conference of scientists, environmentalists and world leaders to discuss solutions for overfishing, ocean acidification and marine pollution. For those that can’t attend, you can follow along and contribute to the discussion through the #ourocean2014 hashtag on Twitter. Secretary Kerry and the Department of State will host delegates from around the world to discuss ocean issues. You can participate by registering for the Department of States’ Thunderclap.
  • Global Ocean Commission Report Release: The independent Global Ocean Commission recently released research on the value of the ocean and will share its much-anticipated recommendations on June 24th. McKinsey & Company will also release a new report detailing the economics of the seas, promising a fundamental shift in how we should value the bounty of the ocean. Learn more here.

The world’s oceans are vital resources, and will continue to be for generations to come. EDF is committed to healthy oceans, fisheries and fishing communities. It is inspiring to see the international community focus on oceans. Thanks to World Oceans Day more will come to learn about the importance of our oceans, and what we can do to protect them.

 

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West Coast Groundfish Get Certified Sustainable: A Local Fishery Success Story

 

Pacific rockfish (Photograph by NOAA FishWatch)

Pacific rockfish (Photograph by NOAA FishWatch)

[Re-posted with permission from National Geographic]


Last year I had the privilege of sharing some good news from the sustainable seafood world, that the Gulf of Mexico red snapper fishery had finally shed its perpetual red list status. Today I get to do something similar, by applauding the U.S. West Coast Groundfish IFQ Trawl Fishery for its landmark turnaround and the announcement by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) that they have certified 13 species to their standards for sustainable fishing.  

In their announcement, MSC noted that the West Coast Groundfish IFQ Trawl Fishery is “the most diverse, complex fishery ever to enter assessment against the MSC standard anywhere in the world.” The fishery includes west coast favorites like sablefish and petrale sole, along with first-of-their-kind species in the MSC program like lingcod, thornyheads, and several varieties of Pacific rockfish.

 

The MSC’s 400-page Final Report highlights several strengths of the West Coast Groundfish Trawl Fishery, which include:

  • The strong link between [stock] assessments and management actions
  • The management plan establishes individual accountability on the part of fishermen and delivers more complete data for fishery managers
  • Sensitive habitats are protected in areas of “essential fish habitat,” and additional areas deemed off-limits to bottom trawls
  • The management system is transparent and open to the public
  • The catch share program provides incentives for sustainable fishing

The fishery’s recent success can be traced back to a few factors. In 2011 the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) instituted a ‘catch share’ program, which was developed over several years by a broad range of stakeholders, including commercial fishermen, fishery managers, and the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). (Full disclosure: I work for EDF.) At the same time, this new management plan established a system of 100 percent catch monitoring, which ensured that every fish that came over the rail was accounted for.

Taken together, and recognized by the MSC certification, these measures have drastically reduced bycatch (also known as unwanted or untargeted catch), limited the take of sensitive depleted species, and sparked innovation throughout the fishery. Even better, the changes apply to the entire trawl fishery in California, Oregon, and Washington, accounting for approximately 40 million pounds in landings in 2013.

If you’re not familiar with catch shares, they succeed by giving fishermen a financial stake in their fishery’s future in exchange for greater accountability. By doing so, fishermen avoid and can actually reverse the “tragedy of the commons,” in which too many boats chase—and inevitably over-harvest—steadily dwindling fish stocks.

Brad Pettinger, a lifelong fisherman and director of the Oregon Trawl Commission, coordinated the fishing industry’s effort to gain MSC certification.  “West coast trawl fishermen are extremely proud to have met these stringent criteria for sustainability,” says Pettinger. “And with the unhurried fishing season that we have under catch shares, we’ve dramatically reduced bycatch.”

 

Bouncing Back From Disaster

Remembering a January 2000 federal disaster declaration in his fishery, Pettinger says, “Fifteen years ago they wrote the obituary for this fishery. Ten years ago we started working on a rationalized management plan, and three years ago we put it in place. That was the watershed moment, and now we’re demonstrating that we can be good stewards of an amazing public resource. We could not be happier or more proud.”

Shems Jud, who leads EDF Oceans’ Pacific team, has worked to rebuild Pacific groundfish stocks alongside fishermen like Pettinger for seven years. He believes that 100 percent monitoring is probably the single greatest change in the fishery, but one that does not come cheap.

Those federal observers cost hundreds of dollars a day and many west coast fishing businesses already operate on razor-thin margins. Still, what they gain with a federal observer is accountability, and in a seafood marketplace that increasingly rewards sustainable fishing practices, that can create market leverage.

 

Looking Forward

Dover sole (Photograph by NOAA FishWatch)

Dover sole (Photograph by NOAA FishWatch)

“MSC’s certification may assist in that respect,” continues Jud. “For the fishermen who have adapted to an entirely new management regime and increased operating costs, we are optimistic that this recognition will result in new and stronger market opportunities.”

To help keep operating costs in check, the Pacific Fishery Management Council is beginning a process that may one day replace human observers with electronic monitoring (EM) systems.

“That’s become a huge priority for us,” Jud added. “In order for this catch share program to endure and succeed, fishermen have to survive economically. EM may help reduce their costs and buy them just enough time so the benefits of the new program, such as MSC certification, catch up with their day-to-day business realities.”

So over the coming months we hope and expect that the seafood industry will embrace this fishery success story and amplify the hard work of west coast IFQ fishermen. And while it may take these fish a little time to make it into the inventories of markets and restaurants near you, I hope you’ll join me in seeking out these local, sustainable Pacific groundfish species when you buy seafood, because adding 40 million pounds of certified, sustainable product to the market is definitely a cause for celebration.

 

 

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‘Doing it for the Halibut: How a discard ban saved my fishery’

By: Wes Erikson

Fisherman Wes Erikson shares his experiences fishing under strict Canadian discard legislation to demonstrate how the Common Fisheries Policy landing obligation can result in sustainably managed and economically viable European fisheries.

Photo: Wes Erikson

Photo: Wes Erikson

 

My story:

I have not missed a fishing season since I was five-years old. At that time, anyone could go fishing commercially; all you needed was a boat and a strong back (my grandfather used to say a weak mind helped!). Fishing with my father and grandfather at age 16, I skippered a 14-metre salmon troller and at 20, in 1987, I purchased my first vessel – a 15 metre halibut/salmon vessel. When I became a vessel owner, I decided it was important to get involved in the fisheries advisory process, and I remain involved to this day.

My fishery has evolved and matured as a result of concerns that fishermen have regarding safety, illegal activities, and price. Managers, scientists, and ENGOs have added to this with issues surrounding monitoring, accountability, discards, MPA’s, seabird avoidance, and more. Sometimes change was forced upon us, and it is worth noting that fishermen can navigate cannily around any rule. We are natural problem solvers. We have to be, because lost lives and financial ruin are a very possible outcome of problems that arise in our field. This is one of the reasons why “only fishermen can talk to fishermen.”

Co-management gave us the opportunity to be involved in decision making and regulation changes; real co-management, not just talking to fishermen. This requires time, trust, and allowing both parties to make mistakes and learn from them. The industry was given the chance to grow and mature, but growing up is not easy. None of this was easy. In fact, many changes seemed impossible.

In 2002, the Canadian government asked the participants of the groundfish fishery to integrate and account for all rockfish – 7 sectors, 4 gear types. The fear here was that if we could not figure out how to achieve these objectives, they would. The system we designed had to be affordable and workable for both the smallest boat in the fleet (5m) and the largest (60m), and seven fisheries, all with various catches, needed to combine and become fully accountable. Some species–of which there were over 72 to manage with up to 5 management areas per species– were jointly managed between Canada and the USA.

What we did:

We began by selecting an independent professional facilitator and developing guiding principles for how the process would work. As we started this new pilot fishery, I was terrified. The annual individual vessel allowance of some bottleneck species were less than I had discarded on any given day. On top of that, the quota for these species were owned by less than 80 individuals, one of whom speculated on quota just before this initiative was implemented, owned ten percent, and was planning on leasing these scarce species for a premium.

In light of this seemingly unworkable situation, we went fishing anyway. We’re fishermen. It’s what we do. In the first year, we left over fifty percent of those bottleneck species in the water, and the quota owners were left holding onto over half of this so-called valuable quota. Fishermen began cooperating and communicating almost immediately in order to avoid species with low TACs, and if you are a fisherman, then you will understand that this is revolutionary. Since 2006, we have under-harvested every species as a fleet, including the bottleneck species.

Over 300 Canadian vessels participate in the integrated groundfish fishery, under one management plan, with catch shares, an allocation based management tool, for all species and vessels; although each sector had a very different catch share design. Each vessel is accountable for all of its catch, regardless of whether it is retained or released, with logbooks being audited against video footage and compared to the offload. Now that we can trust the data, our logbooks are being used in science and management studies, because the data provides information on total catch mortality– retained and released.

How we did it:

The most important guideline in fisheries management design is to clearly define your objectives, before you identify your participants and begin a consultative process. With enough incentive, any problem can be solved. The four most important components of this fishery are:

  1. The removal of competition, or, preventing the race for fish
  2. Individual accountability
  3. Transferability
  4. Monitoring

Transferability is an important feature of this management system. It supports selective fishing, staying within allocations, staying safe, and allowing industry to adjust to resource and market dynamics. Vessels are allowed to carry over some level of quota underages and overages from one year to the next, which encourages vessels to fish below their allocation.

There is no guarantee of success here. However, I do know that without these elements in my fishery, we were headed for failure. Many of us now will survive and thrive because the system gives us the flexibility to adjust, take measured risks, and gather the support we need to execute new plans. This has allowed for better working relationships with everyone involved, and we will continue to evolve and mature over time, because this system allows us the flexibility to innovate.

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From top down to bottom up: Transitioning to co-management of local fisheries

“We’re all on the same page for the first time, and it’s amazing”, Wes Erikson, Commercial Fisherman

At the Hague Global Oceans Action Summit last month, Tom Grasso of the Environmental Defense Fund had the opportunity  to facilitate a co-management workshop under the theme of ‘Models for Governance,’ featuring:

  • Wes Erikson: fourth generation Commercial Fisherman, British Columbia
  • Raul Garcia: Director of Fisheries, WWF Spain
  • Momo Kochen: Science and Programme Director, Fishing and Living, Indonesia
  • Cathy Demesa:  Executive Director, Network of Sustainable Livelihoods Catalysts, (NSLC) Inc., the Philippines
  • Dr Sunoto:  Advisor to the Minister of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Indonesia

Attendees discussed the best way to achieve a transition from top down, centralised fisheries management to bottom up, community-led approaches. All agreed that successful co-management takes time, due to a need to build sustained trust and willing co-operation across different sectors such as fishermen, government, NGOs and processors – but that the investment of time pays major dividends.

All of the field practitioners noted the similarities among triumphs and challenges they faced in implementing comanagement systems, even while it comes in many different forms. WWF’s Raul Garcia drew attention to Spain’s long history of co-management with the cofradias, and the continued attempts of NGOs in Spain to widen the number of fisheries in which the ethos of co-management is institutionally accepted.

All supported prioritising investment in creating the enabling conditions necessary to encourage the adoption and spread of co-management, such as investments that:

  • Facilitate networking, information sharing and exchanges that introduce best practices and reduce learning times and technology transfer costs.
  • Strengthen the voices of local communities and of leaders at all levels of governance, to ensure their active participation in making and enforcing rules and best practices.
  • Secure access rights, enhance access to markets and, where necessary, compensate local communities.

There is no doubt that transitioning to co-management of local fisheries is no easy task. However, the speakers at this workshop demonstrated that when a co-management system takes hold, it has the potential to transform former long-time adversaries into collaborators with recognised shared goals.

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