Author Archives: Johanna Thomas

Long Term Restoration of NE Groundfishery Requires Careful Use of Disaster Fund Dollars

New Bedford, MA Fishing Boats I recently co-authored an op-ed in the Bangor Daily Times entitled “’Disaster’ Funds Must be Used to Improve Groundfishing in the Long Term,”  in which we discussed the importance of thinking about both the short and long term challenges facing the New England groundfishery. The Obama Administration recently declared the fishery a federal disaster.

The deep decline in the numbers of cod and other groundfish in New England waters has created this critical need to help local fishermen and fishing communities. But any support to the fishing industry needs to be more than a simple transfer of money. We need to ensure that there are fish for the fishermen to catch in years to come.

By making smart investments now, we can do more than help fishermen through this crisis. We can take care of fundamental needs to provide assurance against potential future disasters. The op-ed outlines several steps that can be taken to ensure that these ‘disaster’ funds are utilized for the long term health and survival of NE fishermen, coastal communities and the fish that sustain them.

Read my full op-ed in the Bangor Daily Times or in the New Bedford Standard Times.

Posted in New England| Tagged , , | Comments closed

Seattle Times Cites Benefits of West Coast Catch Share Program

Winona J Docked in Newport, Oregon

"This is a really big deal," said Will Stelle in a Sunday Seattle Times story which highlights the benefits of the groundfish catch share program on the West Coast. "It is restructuring the architecture of the fishery, building in very real and powerful incentives to do the right thing," said the Northwest regional administrator for the National Marine Fisheries Service. The article cites several benefits that West Coast fishermen are seeing, including dramatic reduction of regulatory discards, fishing gear innovations and improved revenues. To read the full article, click here.

Posted in Catch Shares, EDF Oceans General, Pacific, Seafood| Tagged , , , , , , , | Comments closed

Ending the “Immoral” Waste of Groundfish Bycatch on the West Coast

As catch shares come to the West Coast, many fishermen are relieved that the end of wasted trawl bycatch is finally in sight. Under the existing “trip limit” groundfish management structure, fishermen for years have been required by regulation to shovel uncounted tons of dead fish overboard – a practice they find appalling. John Pennisi, a Monterey fisherman who will operate under the new catch shares policy after January 1st calls the shoveling of fish “immoral,” and reflects on what it was like to fish under a broken regulatory system in the Monterey County Weekly.

Still, opponents have filed a lawsuit to stop the program, and in discussing their lawsuit with the media have repeatedly made unsubstantiated assertions. Brent Paine, a West Coast trawl industry leader, recently pushed back on some of those claims.

Posted in Catch Shares, Pacific| Tagged , , , | Comments closed

West Coast Fishermen Prepare for Transition to Catch Shares

On the West Coast, catch share management of the groundfish trawl fishery will take effect on January 1, 2011. The culmination of a seven year process, catch shares represent a major shift in the ways that West Coast trawlers – and other fishery stakeholders – will conduct their business.

Fishermen who will operate under the new system have benefited from hearing from their counterparts in British Columbia, where catch shares were established for the groundfish trawl fishery 13 years ago. Some of the province's leading trawl fishermen shared their perspectives at a recent industry workshop held in Santa Rosa, CA.

This type of information exchange is just one example of how West Coast fishermen are gearing up for the new program.  A reporter for the Half Moon Bay Review recently talked with a few of those fishermen, including Steve Fitz.

“Under the new program, there is 100 percent accountability, meaning every pound of catch is accounted for against your quota. This forces people to think of more innovative ways to be intelligent about the way they fish. Environmentally and over the long run, this will be a good program,” says Fitz.

Read the full article in the Half Moon Bay Review.

Posted in Catch Shares, Pacific| Tagged , , , , | Comments closed

Pacific Groundfish Catch Shares Approved, Slated to Start Jan 1, 2011

Johanna Thomas, EDF Oceans - Pacific Coast Regional Director

Johanna Thomas, EDF Oceans - Pacific Coast Regional Director

After seven years of planning, the catch share program for the Pacific groundfish trawl sector has cleared one of its final regulatory hurdles. On Tuesday, NOAA's Fisheries Service approved the plan submitted by the Pacific Fisheries Management Council to revitalize the multi-million dollar fishery. The new system joins a spate of other new catch share programs around the country, including one for the iconic New England groundfish fishery and the grouper and red snapper fishery in the Gulf of Mexico.

In the West Coast groundfish sector, fishermen have struggled to make a living under the current management system and have been plagued by increasingly strict regulations to address the incidental catch (bycatch) of depleted fish species. Landings for West Coast trawlers had plummeted 70 percent in the last two decades, and since 1998 revenues have dropped from $47.3 million to $22.2 million.

The new system provides fishermen with a guaranteed percentage of the overall catch, based on the size of their vessel and their fishing history. Under catch shares, fishermen will have much greater freedom to fish when they want, and will also be able to sell or lease their shares to other fishermen. Based on results from other fisheries that have transitioned to catch shares, bycatch is expected to drop dramatically for the West Coast trawl fleet, allowing fish stocks and the industry to recover from years of decline.

We applaud both NOAA and the Pacific Fishery Management Council for taking this important step. This is a new day for a fishery that was declared a disaster just ten years ago. From now on, West Coast trawlers will not be in a rush to fish and deliver their catch. Instead, they will time their trips in accordance with both weather and market forecasts, maximizing their profits while fishing in a safer, more efficient, and sustainable way.

The approved plan includes precedent-setting provisions aimed at protecting coastal communities and the environment. There are several features in the plan that makes it stand out as a model for sustainable and adaptive fisheries management. The Council and NOAA have seen to it that fishermen and coastal communities have a real say in how they adopt new practices and adapt to the catch share system.

Years from now, when we look back on this moment, we’ll see that this was a turning point for West Coast trawlers and the groundfish species they harvest.

Posted in Catch Shares, Pacific| Tagged , , , , , , | Comments closed

Oregon Trawl Commission Poll Shows Strong Support for Keeping the IFQ Program on Track

A recent survey of trawl fishermen in Oregon is a good yardstick for the present outlook of West Coast trawl fishermen who will be moving to a catch share program in January 2011. The poll shows strong support for keeping the IFQ program on track for implementation:

  • 40 supported actively working to ensure implementation in 2011, while 16 preferred a delayed implementation date. 
  • There were only 17 votes in opposition to the program out of a total of 73 who responded to the poll.

The significance of this vote is that even in the face of uncertainty about this new catch share program, the trawl fishermen of Oregon believe that the program is a significant improvement over status quo management, and a vital step to saving the groundfish fishery from its continued downward spiral.

In response to questions about the upcoming change in management of the Pacific groundfish trawl fishery, the Oregon Trawl Commission (OTC) conducted a membership poll asking the Oregon fleet to respond to three questions related to support for the Pacific groundfish trawl catch shares program.  This new management program has been designed to generate millions of dollars more income at the fleet level, get rid of wasteful regulatory discards, and reward those fishermen who are best able to avoid sensitive overfished species. Since Oregon has the majority of trawl fishermen of all three affected West Coast states, the poll is a good measurement of fishermen sentiment.

The Oregon Trawl Commission is a state agency that works to support the trawl industry in Oregon, and is supported by assessments on all trawl-caught fish landed in Oregon.

Never miss a post! Subscribe to EDFish via a email or a feed reader.

Posted in Catch Shares, Pacific| Tagged , , , , , | Comments closed

Catch Shares Address Community Impacts in Ways Conventional Fisheries Management Can’t

Johanna Thomas, EDF Oceans - Pacific Coast Regional Director

Johanna Thomas, EDF Oceans - Pacific Coast Regional Director

At the end of the day, all fishing communities have one thing in common: they all depend on healthy, productive fish stocks. Catch shares management help fishing communities by maintaining fish stocks or bringing them back, while increasing the quality and profitability of fishing jobs.  They can also include tools and mechanisms that benefit communities, things you won’t find under traditional management.

Today more than 60 federal fish stocks are overfished or undergoing overfishing.  As a result, thousands of fishing jobs have been lost. Under conventional management, fishermen in these underperforming fisheries face closures, ever-increasing limits on harvest levels, and dwindling seasons.  When fishing is allowed they are often forced into a dangerous and inefficient race for the fish.

For example, under conventional management, the West Coast trawl fishery has been on a downward economic spiral.  Plants have closed, infrastructure has been lost, and ports have become shadows of their former selves.  An estimated 15% of the fleet has left the fishery due to lack of fishing opportunity in the last five years; fishermen have been leaving the industry, creating worsening economic conditions for communities that have historically relied on groundfish landings.   Under status quo management, a few major players have bought up a large number of permits, consolidating ownership and leading to fewer owner-operators on the water.  

In contrast, catch share programs can include ways to deliver the benefits of a healthy fishery to communities, including fair allocation, limits on consolidation, and opportunities for new entrants.  Catch shares can also include ways to conserve the resource so that the fishery will deliver benefits into the future.

Specifically, the forthcoming Pacific groundfish catch share includes:

  • Strict ownership caps for each species in the plan to ensure that no individual fishermen or entity can accumulate excessive amounts of quota.  There are also caps on the amount of species quota that any entity can control through business arrangements.
  • An Adaptive Management Program that will be used to stabilize fishing communities and maximize benefits of the program while protecting against unanticipated consequences.  For example, the adaptive management quota can help traditional fishing ports maintain access to landings of groundfish. The program takes 10% of the trawl total allowable catch and dedicates it to a public trust pool.
  • In addition, the Pacific Fishery Management Council is developing guidelines for community fishing associations and collective fishing arrangements.  These programs will provide communities with the opportunity to maintain access to groundfish, opportunities that do not exist under status quo management. 
  • Room for new entrants – Quota is divisible down to the single pound level, meaning that young fishermen can buy in slowly, one pound at a time. Likewise, as some fishermen leave the fishery, permits will become available for purchase. In addition, quota from the Adaptive Management Program mentioned above could be leased or loaned to new entrants to enable them to enter the fishery at reduced cost.

Current management is failing to make fishing a profitable livelihood for the fishermen that rely on the resource. This in turn is putting our fishing communities in danger, and catch shares are coming at a time when many fishing ports are already extremely vulnerable.  Catch shares provide the means for communities to benefit from a productive and renewed fishing fleet.

Posted in Catch Shares, Pacific| Tagged , , , | Comments closed

A Cautionary Tale About the New Study from Ecotrust Canada

bc_074sm.jpgI just read A Cautionary Tale About ITQ’s in BC Fisheries by Ecotrust Canada.  What struck me most is that we seem to be moving beyond the debate about whether catch shares provide conservation benefits.  It’s clear that they do.

In the paper, Ecotrust affirms the conservation benefits of ITQs, Individual Transferable Quotas, one form of a catch share:

“[ITQs] make fishermen responsible for keeping within an individual catch limit thereby ensuring that the entire fleet stays within a strict TAC [total allowable catch].” 

The article goes on to say that, for this reason, ITQs have been good for conservation.   It also says that ITQs can increase the economic performance of a fishery.

As catch shares become more common, a close look at particular aspects of catch share design can help create a healthy dialogue about how best to fine-tune the programs.  We should aim to optimize conservation benefits while ensuring the highest possible benefits for fishing communities.

bc_058sm.jpgEcotrust highlights that catch shares have led to increases in the value of fisheries.  Significant societal benefits are associated with these changes, including providing fishermen and crew with more stable jobs; providing opportunities for creative business innovations; more highly valued seafood; and increased investment in modernizing fishing boats and gear.  However, Ecotrust focuses on the economic impacts on a specific group of stakeholders in fisheries:  primarily fishing crews.  Ecotrust’s central complaint is that the practice of leasing quota share disadvantages British Columbia fishing crews, compared to share owners or other stakeholders.

The design of any fishing regulation should be as fair as possible with regard to participation by all of society in the economic upside of well-managed fisheries.  Most unfair of all would be to continue managing our fisheries on an unsustainable course.

The paper points to specific solutions to the concern of fairness in catch shares: including community hold backs, direct community allocations, owner-on-board requirements, territorial use rights and other mechanisms.  EDF has advocated and even pioneered these types of tools in past and current catch share design processes.  Our goal, which we share with Ecotrust and many other fishery stakeholders, is to maximize the positive socio-economic outcomes and minimize the negative ones — once conservation performance is assured.

Posted in Catch Shares, Latin America & Caribbean| Tagged , , , , , | 1 Response, comments now closed